Rationalization of soccer training in terms of health effects of metropolitan smog and activity on the artificial turf


healthy training
metropolitan smog
artificial turf


How to Cite

Duda, H. (2023) “Rationalization of soccer training in terms of health effects of metropolitan smog and activity on the artificial turf”, Scientific Journal of Bielsko-Biala School of Finance and Law. Bielsko-Biała, PL, 27(4), pp. 68–74. doi: 10.19192/wsfip.sj4.2023.10.


The aim of the study was to determine the response of football players to physical exertion taking into account the degree of smog-related air pollution. This response was also assessed in a training environment on an artificial football pitch, where the concentration of particulate air pollutants in the area is higher due to the release of dust from rubber granules found on the grass of artificial football pitches. The study was conducted among 20 male recreational football coaches. The mean age of the participants was 22.8±2.3 years. Continuous research from 2019 to 2021 was conducted during programme football training on an artificial football pitch at a sports facility in Kraków. The body's response (resting and exercise heart rate) was studied in football players under smog and clean air conditions (Samsung AX60R5080WD/EU air pollution meters, Air Visual Pro). The results of the study concluded that the degree of air pollution (smog) influences the body's response (higher HR value). It has also been observed that artificial turf, due to the abrasion of the granules, is characterised by a higher level of air pollution, which, in addition to containing toxic chemical compounds, has a negative impact on the health of the footballer.



Armada, D., Llompart, M., Celeiro, M., Garcia-Castro, P., Ratola, N., Dagnac, T., et al. (2022). Global evaluation of the chemical hazard of recycled tire crumb rubber employed on worldwide synthetic turf football pitches. Sci. Total Environ. 812, 152542. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152542.

Arslan, E., Alemdaroglu, U., Koklu, Y., Hazir, T., Muniroglu, S., and Karakoc, B. (2017). Effects of Passive and Active Rest on Physiological Responses and Time Motion Characteristics in Different Small Sided Soccer Games. J. Hum. Kinet. 60, 123–132. doi: 10.1515/hukin-2017-0095.

Ashraf, A., Butt, A., Khalid, I., Alam, R. U., and Ahmad, S. R. (2019). Smog analysis and its effect on reported ocular surface diseases: A case study of 2016 smog event of Lahore. Atmos. Environ. 198, 257–264. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.10.029.

Baccarelli, A., Zanobetti, A., Martinelli, I., Grillo, P., Hou, L., Giacomini, S., et al. (2007). Effects of exposure to air pollution on blood coagulation. J. Thromb. Haemost. 5, 252–260. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2007.02300.x.

Borg GA (1992). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sport. Exerc 14, 377–381.

Brandsma, S. H., Brits, M., Groenewoud, Q. R., van Velzen, M. J. M., Leonards, P. E. G., and de Boer, J. (2019). Chlorinated Paraffins in Car Tires Recycled to Rubber Granulates and Playground Tiles. Environ. Sci. Technol. 53, 7595–7603. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.9b01835.

Brook, R. D., Rajagopalan, S., Pope, C. A., Brook, J. R., Bhatnagar, A., Diez-Roux, A. V., et al. (2010). Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation 121, 2331–2378. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e3181dbece1.

Cai, Q.-C., Lu, J., Xu, Q.-F., Guo, Q., Xu, D.-Z., Sun, Q.-W., et al. (2007). Influence of meteorological factors and air pollution on the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Public Health 121, 258–265. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2006.09.023.

Celeiro, M., Dagnac, T., and Llompart, M. (2018). Determination of priority and other hazardous substances in football fields of synthetic turf by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: A health and environmental concern. Chemosphere 195, 201–211. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.063.

Chen, R., Li, H., Cai, J., Wang, C., Lin, Z., Liu, C., et al. (2018). Fine Particulate Air Pollution and the Expression of microRNAs and Circulating Cytokines Relevant to Inflammation, Coagulation, and Vasoconstriction. Environ. Health Perspect. 126, 017007. doi: 10.1289/EHP1447.

Cohen, P. R. (2008). The skin in the gym: a comprehensive review of the cutaneous manifestations of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in athletes. Clin. Dermatol. 26, 16–26. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2007.10.006.

Duda, H., Rydzik, Ł., Czarny, W., Błach, W., Görner, K., and Ambroży, T. (2020). Reaction of the Organisms of Young Football Players to City Smog in the Sports Training. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, 5510. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17155510.

Fanchini, M., Ghielmetti, R., Coutts, A. J., Schena, F., and Impellizzeri, F. M. (2015). Effect of Training-Session Intensity Distribution on Session Rating of Perceived Exertion in Soccer Players. Int. J. Sports Physiol. Perform. 10, 426–430. doi: 10.1123/ijspp.2014-0244.

Feng, B., Song, X., Dan, M., Yu, J., Wang, Q., Shu, M., et al. (2019). High level of source-specific particulate matter air pollution associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Sci. Total Environ. 657, 1285–1293. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.178.

Gładka, A., and Zatoński, T. (2016). Wpływ zanieczyszczenia powietrza na choroby układu oddechowego. Kosm. Probl. Nauk Biol. 65, 573–582.

Gualdi-Russo, E., Rinaldo, N., Toselli, S., and Zaccagni, L. (2020). Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessed by Accelerometer with Body Composition among Children and Adolescents: A Scoping Review. Sustainability 13, 335. doi: 10.3390/su13010335.

Hidy, G. M. (2018). An historical experiment: Los Angeles smog evolution observed by blimp. J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 68, 643–655. doi: 10.1080/10962247.2018.1433251.

Iurilli, M. L., Zhou, B., Bennett, J. E., Carrillo-Larco, R. M., Sophiea, M. K., Rodriguez-Martinez, A., et al. (2021). Heterogeneous contributions of change in population distribution of body mass index to change in obesity and underweight. Elife 10. doi: 10.7554/eLife.60060.

Jędrak, J., Konduracka, E., Badyda, A. ., and Dąbrowiecki, P. (2017). “Wpływ zanieczyszczeń powietrza na zdrowie,” in Polskie Towarzystwo Medycyny Środowiskowej;Wojskowy Instytut Medyczny (Polska Federacja Stowarzyszeń Chorych na Astmę, Alergię i POChP).

Kargarfard, M., Shariat, A., Shaw, B. S., Shaw, I., Lam, E. T. C., Kheiri, A., et al. (2015). Effects of Polluted Air on Cardiovascular and Hematological Parameters After Progressive Maximal Aerobic Exercise. Lung 193, 275–281. doi: 10.1007/s00408-014-9679-1.

Kelishadi, R., and Poursafa, P. (2010). Air pollution and non-respiratory health hazards for children. Arch. Med. Sci. 4, 483–495. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2010.14458.

Kirkland, E. B., and Adams, B. B. (2008). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and athletes. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 59, 494–502. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2008.04.016.

Lichter, A., Pestel, N., and Sommer, E. (2017). Productivity effects of air pollution: Evidence from professional soccer. Labour Econ. 48, 54–66. doi: 10.1016/j.labeco.2017.06.002.

Llompart, M., Sanchez-Prado, L., Pablo Lamas, J., Garcia-Jares, C., Roca, E., and Dagnac, T. (2013). Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers. Chemosphere 90, 423–431. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.07.053.

Lü, J., Liang, L., Feng, Y., Li, R., and Liu, Y. (2015). Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, 14887–14897. doi: 10.3390/ijerph121114887.

Marska-Kotlińska, M., Bartz, J., and Wieliński, D. (2002). Wybrane zagadnienia statystyki dla studiujących wychowanie fizyczne. AWF.

Maher, A., Abdel Rahman, M. F., and Gad, M. Z. (2017). “The Role of Nitric Oxide from Neurological Disease to Cancer,” in, 71–88. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-60733-7_5.

Mazurek, H., and Badyda, A. (2018). Smog- Konsekwencje zdrowotne zanieczyszczeń powietrza. Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich.

McGuinn, L. A., Schneider, A., McGarrah, R. W., Ward-Caviness, C., Neas, L. M., Di, Q., et al. (2019). Association of long-term PM2.5 exposure with traditional and novel lipid measures related to cardiovascular disease risk. Environ. Int. 122, 193–200. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.001.

Miller, M. R. (2020). Oxidative stress and the cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 151, 69–87. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.01.004.

Murphy, M., and Warner, G. R. (2022). Health impacts of artificial turf: Toxicity studies, challenges, and future directions. Environ. Pollut. 310, 119841. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119841.

Ontawong, A., Saokaew, S., Jamroendararasame, B., and Duangjai, A. (2020). Impact of long-term exposure wildfire smog on respiratory health outcomes. Expert Rev. Respir. Med. 14, 527–531. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2020.1740089.

Perkins, A. N., Inayat-Hussain, S. H., Deziel, N. C., Johnson, C. H., Ferguson, S. S., Garcia-Milian, R., et al. (2019). Evaluation of potential carcinogenicity of organic chemicals in synthetic turf crumb rubber. Environ. Res. 169, 163–172. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.10.018.

Reche, C., Viana, M., van Drooge, B. L., Fernández, F. J., Escribano, M., Castaño-Vinyals, G., et al. (2020). Athletes’ exposure to air pollution during World Athletics Relays: A pilot study. Sci. Total Environ. 717, 137161. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137161.

Rengarajan, T., Rajendran, P., Nandakumar, N., Lokeshkumar, B., Rajendran, P., and Nishigaki, I. (2015). Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with special focus on cancer. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 5, 182–189. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(15)30003-4.

Rzeszutek, M., and Bogacki, M. (2016). Ocena modelu dyspersji zanieczyszczeń powietrza OSPM: studium przypadku. Annu. Set Environ. Prot. 18, 351–362.

Schneider, K., de Hoogd, M., Madsen, M. P., Haxaire, P., Bierwisch, A., and Kaiser, E. (2020). ERASSTRI - European Risk Assessment Study on Synthetic Turf Rubber Infill – Part 1: Analysis of infill samples. Sci. Total Environ. 718, 137174. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137174.

Seidel, A., Spickenheuer, A., Straif, K., Rihs, H.-P., Marczynski, B., Scherenberg, M., et al. (2008). New Biomarkers of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. J. Toxicol. Environ. Heal. Part A 71, 734–745. doi: 10.1080/15287390801985265.

Stafoggia, M., Schwartz, J., Forastiere, F., and Perucci, C. A. (2008). Does Temperature Modify the Association between Air Pollution and Mortality? A Multicity Case-Crossover Analysis in Italy. Am. J. Epidemiol. 167, 1476–1485. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwn074.

Valavanidis, A., Vlachogianni, T., Fiotakis, K., and Loridas, S. (2013). Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Cancer: Respirable Particulate Matter, Fibrous Dusts and Ozone as Major Causes of Lung Carcinogenesis through Reactive Oxygen Species Mechanisms. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, 3886–3907. doi: 10.3390/ijerph10093886.

Valeriani, F., Margarucci, L. M., Gianfranceschi, G., Ciccarelli, A., Tajani, F., Mucci, N., et al. (2019). Artificial-turf surfaces for sport and recreational activities: microbiota analysis and 16S sequencing signature of synthetic vs natural soccer fields. Heliyon 5, e02334. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02334.

Watterson, A. (2017). Artificial Turf: Contested Terrains for Precautionary Public Health with Particular Reference to Europe? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14, 1050. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14091050.

WHO. (2018). Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030: More Active People for a Healthier World. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Wu, S., Yang, D., Wei, H., Wang, B., Huang, J., Li, H., et al. (2015). Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China. Chemosphere 135, 347–353. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.096.

Zacharko, M., Cichowicz, R., Andrzejewski, M., Chmura, P., Kowalczuk, E., Chmura, J., et al. (2021). Air Pollutants Reduce the Physical Activity of Professional Soccer Players. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, 12928. doi: 10.3390/ijerph182412928.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2024 Henryk Duda, Łukasz Rydzik, Andrzej Soroka, Kamil Sokołowski


Download data is not yet available.